Resources

Industry Resources for Natural Gas and Diesel Generator Suppliers


Your Friends at USP&E have organized and listed for your convenience the top diesel, electrical, industrial, and power generation related resources and sites available on the web. Simply use the list below to browse the categories that interest you and your power initiative:


3500 Series Cat Maintenance


SYAMA Proposed Operation and Maintenance Schedule 3500B and 3500 Generator Set Engines Maintenance Recommendations

Some factors that are important for determining the overhaul intervals include the following considerations:


  • Performance of preventive maintenance
  • Use of recommended lubricants
  • Use of recommended coolants 
  • Use of recommended fuels
  • Proper installation 
  • Operating conditions
  • Operation within acceptable limits
  • Engine load
  • Engine speed 


Generally, engines that are operated at a reduced load and/or speed achieve more service life before an overhaul. However, this is for engines that are properly operated and maintained.


Other factors must also be considered for determining a major overhaul:


  • The total amount of fuel consumption
  • The service hours of the engine
  • An increase of oil consumption
  • An increase of crankcase blowby
  • The wear metal analysis of the lube oil
  • An increase in the levels of noise and vibration
  • An increase of wear metals in the lube oil indicates that the bearings and the surfaces that wear may need to be serviced.
  • An increase in the levels of noise and vibration indicates that rotating parts require service.


Note: It is possible for oil analysis to indicate a decrease of wear metals in the lube oil.


The cylinder liners may be worn so that polishing of the bore occurs. Also, the increased use of lube oil will dilute the wear metals. Monitor the engine as the engine accumulates service hours. Consult your Caterpillar dealer about scheduling a major overhaul.


Note: The driven equipment may also require service when the engine is overhauled. Refer to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the driven equipment. Using Fuel Consumption For Calculating the Overhaul Intervals Experience has shown that maintenance intervals are most accurately based on fuel consumption.

Fuel consumption corresponds more accurately to the engine load. 


Use the actual records of fuel consumption, when possible. If the actual records are not available, use the following procedure in order to estimate the fuel consumption.


  • Estimate the average percent of the load for the operation of the engine.
  • Refer to the fuel consumption data in the Technical Marketing Information (TMI) for your engine. This will determine the fuel consumption for the percent of the load that was estimated in Step 1. Use this figure as variable "F" for the equation in Table 4. For more information about the Technical Marketing Information (TMI) for your engine, consult your Caterpillar dealer.


Equation For Calculating Overhaul Intervals F/R = H "F" is the estimated total amount of fuel consumption of the engine. "R" is the rate of fuel consumption in liters per hour or gallons per hour. "H" is the number of estimated hours until the overhaul interval. Oil Consumption as an Overhaul IndicatorOil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance information can be used to estimate the total operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil consumption can also be used to estimate the required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable for the maintenance intervals. Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage of the rated engine load. As the percentage of the engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is consumed per hour also increases. The oil consumption rate (brake specific oil consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per bhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC) depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil consumption rate for your engine. When an engine's oil consumption has risen to three times the original oil consumption rate due to normal wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled. There may be a corresponding increase in blowby and a slight increase in fuel consumption. Severe OperationSevere operation is the use of an engine that exceeds current published standards for that engine. 


Caterpillar maintains standards for the following engine parameters:


  • Horsepower
  • Range of rpm
  • Fuel consumption
  • Fuel quality - Altitude
  • Maintenance intervals
  • Selection of oil
  • Selection of coolant
  • Environmental qualities
  • Installation


Refer to the standards for your engine or consult your Caterpillar dealer in order to determine if your engine is operating within the defined parameters. Severe operation can accelerate component wear.


Engines that are operating under severe conditions may need more frequent maintenance intervals for the following reasons:


  • Maximum reliability
  • Retention of full service life 


Because of individual applications, it is not possible to identify all of the factors which can contribute to severe operation. Consult your Caterpillar dealer about the maintenance that is needed for your specific engine. 


The following factors can contribute to severe operation: environment, improper operating procedures and improper maintenance practices. Environmental FactorsExtreme Ambient TemperaturesExtended operation in environments that are extremely cold or hot can damage components. Valve components can be damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently started and stopped in very cold temperatures. Extremely hot inlet air reduces the performance capabilities of the engine. Note: See this Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Cold Weather Operation" topic (Operation Section), or see Supplement, SEBU5898, "Cold Weather Recommendations". CleanlinessUnless the equipment is cleaned regularly, extended operation in a dirty environment and in a dusty environment can damage components. Built up mud, dirt, and dust can encase components. This can make maintenance difficult. The buildup can contain corrosive chemicals. Corrosive chemicals and salt can damage some components. 


Improper Operating Procedures


  • Extended operation at low idle
  • Minimum cool down periods after high load factor operation
  • Operating the engine beyond the guidelines for the engine rating
  • Operating the engine at loads that are greater than the rated load
  • Operating the engine at speeds that are greater than the rated speed
  • Use of the engine for an application that is not approved Improper Maintenance Practices
  • Extension of maintenance intervals
  • Not using recommended fuel, lubricants, and coolant/antifreeze


AMP Charts






Did you know that US POWER & ENVIRONMENT is a turnkey Power Solutions Specialist offering complete turnkey standby power packages up to 45mW? We specialize in 100kW to 3 Mega Watt applications for industrial customers seeking heavy duty industrial standby generators for standby or continuous use. We can provide you with diesel, natural gas or propane powered units. We offer only top quality products that are priced at or below our competition who offer lesser brands with higher hours!


Approximate Fuel Consumption Chart


The chart below approximates a diesel generator's fuel consumption according to the size of the generator and the generator's load it is operating at. 



Coefficient of Performance Calculations


Coefficient of Performance  

             

COP  =  BTUH Output  /  kWh Input  x  3413  BTU/kWH

5.85994726    1000000    50      

                          

Heat Pump Performance (COP)              

              

Open Cycle COPs The single most important measure of industrial heat pump performance is the Coefficient of Performance, or COP. COP is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the energy output and the energy input (all expressed in heat equivalents).              

              

For electric-driven heat pumps, this translates to:              

              

COP = Thermal Output (Btu/hr) / ((Power Input (kW) * 3413 Btu/kWh)              


For example, a 50 kW heat pump delivering 1 million Btu/hr has a COP of 5.86.


It may be helpful to view COP like this:


Heat recovered = Heat delivered times the result of the formula coefficient of performance minus 1 divided by the coefficient of performance


And . . .


The heat delivered = The heat recovered times the result of the formula coefficient of performance divided by the coefficient of performance minus 1


The COP of any heat pump cycle can be estimated using the formula shown here:


COP ~ 0. 6 * (460 + Tcond)/(Tcond - Tevap)


where Tcond is the temperature at which the refrigerant used in the heat pump condenses and Tevap is the temperature at which this same refrigerant evaporates.


The factor 0.6 reflects typical industrial equipment efficiencies and is mostly a function of heat pump size. It can be less in smaller units and more in large units; using 0.6 is good enough for first approximations. This formula can be simplified in water heating applications:                        

                        

If we assume the heat pump produces 120 degree hot water and cools a cooling tower water stream to 85 degrees, this formula predicts the heat pump COP to be 6.92:                        

                        

COP ~ 0. 6 * (468 + 120)/(120 - 85 + 16) = 6.92.                        

                        

Calculating the power required to drive the heat pump is simply:                        

                        

kW = heating duty (Btu/hr) / (3,413 Btu/kWh * Coefficient Of Performance)                        

                        

Carrying forward the 6.92 COP from before, one million Btu/hr would require                        

                        

1,000,000 Btu / (3413 Btu/kWh * 6.92 COP) or 42.34 kWh.                        

                        

This means that every million Btu of heating at 6.92 COP requires 42.34 kWh.                        

                        

If we assume an industrial electric rate of $0.06 per kWh, the cost of the heat recovered by the heat pump is $2.54 per million Btu - much less than most industrial firms' cost of steam.                        

                        

If the heat pump does not influence peak electrical demand (which may be possible by interrupting the heat pump during peak periods), the average price per kWh may be very low. This could improve the heat pump economics.   


Cummins 2 Year Warranty


New two-year warranty for all commercial generator sets, transfer switches and switchgear provides global coverage for customers


MINNEAPOLIS - As of March 2009, Cummins is offering a new and expanded warranty on all commercial generator sets, transfer switches and switchgear - making it one of the most comprehensive coverage policy in the industry


The warranty applies to all Cummins Power Generation-branded commercial products shipped on or after March 1, 2009, including new commercial products purchased through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - also known as the federal stimulus program.


The warranty provides global coverage for any failures - under normal use and service - resulting from a defect in material. It begins the date of initial start-up, first rental, demonstration or 18 months after factory ship date, whichever comes first. It covers commercial products rated continuous power (unlimited hours prime power (unlimited hours) and limited-time running power (maximum of 500 hours) for one year.


The warranty coverage of a product with an emergency standby power rating has been extended to two years or 400 hours (whichever comes first). The warranty specifications relative to the power ratings match or exceed those mentioned in the applicable standard set by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO is the world's largest developer and publisher of international standards.

"Cummins Power Generation is able to offer this extended two-year warranty because we have the financial stability along with the global manufacturing capabilities to provide consistent, high-quality materials and production," said Devesh Dahale, project manager, warranty systems, Cummins Power Generation. "Regardless of where they are in the world, customers who have purchased our equipment can be assured of exceptional product quality, backed by the industry's most all-inclusive warranty and our world-leading network of distributors and dealers."


In the event of a product failure during the warranty period due to defects in material or workmanship, Cummins Power Generation will be responsible for all parts and labor required to repair the product, reasonable travel expenses to and from the product site's location, and maintenance items that are contaminated or damaged by a warrantable failure.


The product owner will be responsible for: notifying a Cummins Power Generation distributor such as USP&E Global within 30 days of the discovery of failure; installing, operating, commissioning and maintaining the product in accordance with Cummins Power Generation's published policies and guidelines; providing evidence for date of commissioning; and enabling sufficient access to and reasonable ability to remove the product from the installation site in the event of a warrantable failure.


The warranty statement also clearly states applicable limitations. Cummins Power Generation also offers several levels of extended warranty coverage. Product owners can contact their local Cummins Power Generation distributor or visit www.uspowerco.com for more details.


For More Information, call us!



Cummins Natural Gas Power Plant Specifications


CUMMINS NATURAL GAS GENERATING


SETS - 3 PHASE - 60 HZ. / 50 HZ 1800 RPM. / 1500 RPM.


60 HZ 50HZ 

STANDBY PRIME STANDBY PRIME GENSET ENGINE DIMENSIONS WEIGHT

MODEL MODEL

KW KVA KW KVA KW KVA KW KVA L" X W" X H" (LBS)

125 156 115 144 105 131 95 119 CN-125 GTA8.3G1 104 x 40 x 54 3,385

150 188 135 169 120 150 105 131 CN-150 GTA8.3G2 104 x 40 x 54 3,500

185 231 165 206 150 188 135 169 CN-185 GTA855G1 143 x 60 x 75 6,200

215 269 190 238 175 219 160 200 CN-215 GTA855G2 143 x 60 x 75 6,400

250 313 225 281 215 269 195 244 CN-250 GTA855G3 143 x 60 x 75 6,600

280 350 235 294 240 300 210 263 CN-280 GTA14G2 143 x 63 x 76 7,300

325 406 285 356 275 344 250 313 CN-325 GTA19G1 143 x 63 x 82 7,700

350 438 315 394 295 369 275 344 CN-350 GTA19G2 143 x 63 x 82 7,700

500 625 450 563 430 538 390 488 CN-500 GTA28 169 x 99 x 98 13,000

575 719 520 650 480 600 430 538 CN-575 GTA38G1 192x100x110 19,700

625 781 570 713 525 656 475 594 CN-630 GTA38G2 192x100x110 20,000

680 850 620 775 575 719 520 650 CN-680 GTA14G3 192x100x110 20,350

750 938 675 844 620 775 560 700 CN-750 GTA50G1 205x100x120 23,500

800 1000 725 906 670 838 605 756 CN-800 GTA50G2 205x100x120 23,700

880 1100 800 1000 760 950 665 831 CN-880 GTA50G3 205x100x120 24,000


Please Contact USP&E at +27 (0)65 744 1119 today for more information on our new and used low hour Cummins Natural gas and Diesel power plants!


Diesel Generator Tier Level Requirements World Wide


Per Montreal Protocol



E M D Natural Gas Generator Specifications


Power Plant Model Numbers and Power Ratings

  


EGSA's On-Site Power Generation: A Reference Book


On-Site Power Generation: A Reference Book


This 600-plus- page book is the "bible" of the industry. For years, engineers, industrial users, maintenance technicians, procurement managers, and others have asked for a reference guide to on-site power technology. EGSA's On-Site Power: A Reference Book has filled that need. And it has been updated to the fourth edition, with 7 completely new chapters and a lot of new information in the existing chapters. This book contains the most complete and up-to-date technical information covering on-site electrical power generation.4th Edition


Download an information sheet and order form (4th Edition). Fax your completed form to EGSA at (561) 395-8557.The fourth edition of this easy-to-read reference book contains more than 600 pages of application guides for virtually all phases of on-site power generation equipment, from diesel and natural gas engine generator sets to switchgear, controls, and everything in between.Contains all the information you've been searching for:Electrical Fundamentals Alternators Induction Generators Automatic Voltage Regulation Circuit Breakers Automatic Transfer Switches Generator Switchgear Spark-ignited Engines Diesel Engines Gas Turbines Governor Fundamentals Fuel Systems Cooling Systems Engine Exhaust Systems Exhaust Silencers and Sound Attenuation Engine Protective Controls Vibration Isolation and Analysis Enclosure Design Batteries and Chargers What's New in the 4th Edition? The book has been revised to include the most current technology and practices. Every chapter was updated, and seven completely new chapters have been added: Other Power Generation Technologies (Fuel Cells, Wind and Solar Power, and Biomass Generation)Inverters


Load BanksEmergency, Standby, and Prime Power ApplicationsCogenerationNine-9's Premium Power


Interconnection with the GridPLUS: Several existing chapters have been extensively rewritten, and all of the 3rd Edition chapters have been thoroughly reviewed to make sure they are current and useful.Who Can Use this Book?Engineers and designers will find it an invaluable tool for specifying and creating systems. Marketing and sales personnel can use it as an information source to help them make sales. Facility managers and users of on-site power equipment will discover ways of optimizing their own systems. What Does It Cost?This hardbound reference book is now available at a great low price. EGSA Members just $125. Non-members only $225. Get your copy today!Whether you're a manufacturer, end user, maintenance techncian, seller, or buyer of power generation equipment - or just learning how to make the most of your own on-site installation - USP&E highly recommends your purchase your copy from www.egsa.org today!


ELECTRICITY AROUND THE WORLD COUNTRY VOLTAGE FREQUENCY


Afghanistan 220 V 50 Hz

Albania 220 V* 50 Hz

Algeria 230 V 50 Hz

American Samoa 120 V 60 Hz

Andorra 230 V 50 Hz

Angola 220 V 50 Hz

Anguilla 110 V 60 Hz

Antigua 230 V* 60 Hz

Argentina 220 V 50 Hz

Armenia 220 V 50 Hz

Aruba 127 V* 60 Hz

Australia 240 V 50 Hz

Austria 230 V 50 Hz

Azerbaijan 220 V 50 Hz

Azores 220 V* 50 Hz

Bahamas 120 V 60 Hz

Bahrain 230 V* 50 Hz*

Balearic Islands 220 V 50 Hz

Bangladesh 220 V 50 Hz

Barbados 115V 50 Hz

Belarus 220 V 50 Hz

Belgium 230 V 50 Hz

Belize 110/220 V 60 Hz

Benin 220 V 50 Hz

Bermuda 120 V 60 Hz

Bhutan 230 V 50 Hz

Bolivia 220/230 V* 50 Hz

Bosnia 220 V 50 Hz

Botswana 231V 50 Hz

Brazil 110/220 V* 60 Hz

Brunei 240 V 50 Hz

Bulgaria 230 V 50 Hz

Burkina Faso 220 V 50 Hz

Burundi 220 V 50 Hz

Cambodia 230 V 50 Hz

Cameroon 220 V 50 Hz

Canada 120 V 60 Hz

Canary Islands 220 V 50 Hz

Cape Verde 220 V 50 Hz

Cayman Islands 120 V 60 Hz

Central African Republic 220 V 50 Hz

Chad 220 V 50 Hz

Channel Islands 230 V 50 Hz

Chile 220 V 50 Hz

China, People's Republic of 220 V 50 Hz

Colombia 110 V 60 Hz

Comoros 220 V 50 Hz

Congo, People's Rep. of 230 V 50 Hz

Congo, Dem. Rep. of (former Zaire) 220 V 50 Hz

Cook Islands 240 V 50 Hz

Costa Rica 120 V 60 Hz

Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 220 V 50 Hz

Croatia 230 V 50 Hz

Cuba 110/220 V 60 Hz

Cyprus 240 V 50 Hz

Czech Republic 230 V 50 Hz

Denmark 230 V 50 Hz

Djibouti 220 V 50 Hz

Dominica 230 V 50 Hz

Dominican Republic 110 V 60 Hz

East Timor 220 V 50 Hz

Ecuador 120-127 V 60 Hz

Egypt 220 V 50 Hz

El Salvador 115V 60 Hz

England (See United Kingdom)Equatorial Guinea 220 V* 50 Hz

Eritrea 230 V 50 Hz

 Estonia 230 V 50 Hz

Ethiopia 220 V 50 Hz

Faeroe Islands 220 V 50 Hz

Falkland Islands 240 V 50 Hz

Fiji 240 V 50 Hz

Finland 230 V 50 Hz

France 230 V 50 Hz

French Guiana 220 V 50 Hz

Gaza 230 V 50 Hz

Gabon 220 V 50 Hz

Gambia 230 V 50 Hz

Georgia 220 V 50 Hz

Germany 230 V 50 Hz

Ghana 230 V 50 Hz

Gibraltar 240 V 50 Hz

Great Britain (See United Kingdom) Greece 220 V 50 Hz

Greenland 220 V 50 Hz

Grenada (Windward Is.) 230 V 50 Hz

Guadeloupe 230 V 50 Hz

Guam 110 V 60 Hz

Guatemala 120 V 60 Hz

Guinea 220 V 50 Hz

Guinea-Bissau 220 V 50 Hz

Guyana 240 V* 60 Hz*

Haiti 110 V 60 Hz

Honduras 110 V 60 Hz

Hong Kong 220 V* 50 Hz

Hungary 230 V 50 Hz

Iceland 220 V 50 Hz

India 230 V 50 Hz

Indonesia 127/230 V* 50 Hz

Iran 230 V 50 Hz

Iraq 230 V 50 Hz

Ireland (Eire) 230 50 Hz

Isle of Man 240 V 50 Hz

Israel 220 V 50 Hz

Italy 230 V 50 Hz

Ivory Coast (See Côte d'Ivoire) Jamaica 110 V 50 Hz

Japan 100 V 50/60 Hz*

Jordan 230 V 50 Hz

Kenya 240 V 50 Hz

Kazakhstan 220 V 50 Hz

Kiribati 240 V 50 Hz

Korea, South 220 V 60 Hz

Kuwait 240 V 50 Hz

Laos 230 V 50 Hz

Latvia 220 V 50 Hz

Lebanon 110/220 V 50 Hz

Lesotho 220 V 50 Hz

Liberia 120 V 60 Hz

Libya 127 V* 50 Hz

Lithuania 220 V 50 Hz

Liechtenstein 230 V 50 Hz

Luxembourg 220 V 50 Hz

Macau 220 V 50 Hz

Macedonia 220 V 50 Hz

Madagascar 220 V 50 Hz

Madeira 220 V 50 Hz

Malawi 230 V 50 Hz

Malaysia 240 V 50 Hz

Maldives 230 V 50 Hz

Mali 220 V 50 Hz

Malta 240 V 50 Hz

Martinique 220 V 50 Hz

Mauritania 220 V 50 Hz

Mauritius 230 V 50 Hz

Mexico 127 V 60 Hz

Micronesia (Federal States of) 120 V 60 Hz

Monaco 127/220 V 50 Hz

Mongolia 220 V 50 Hz

Montenegro 220 V 50 Hz

Montserrat (Leeward Is.) 230 V 60 Hz

Morocco 127/220 V* 50 Hz

Mozambique 220 V 50 Hz

Myanmar (formerly Burma) 230 V 50 Hz

Namibia 220 V 50 Hz

Nauru 240 V 50 Hz

Nepal 230 V 50 Hz

Netherlands 230 V 50 Hz

Netherlands Antilles 127/220 V* 50 Hz

New Caledonia 220 V 50 Hz

New Zealand 230 V 50 Hz

Nicaragua 120 V 60 Hz

Niger 220 V 50 Hz

Nigeria 240 V 50 Hz

Northern Ireland (see United Kingdom) Norway 230 V 50 Hz

Okinawa 100 V* 60 Hz

Oman 240 V* 50 Hz

Pakistan 220 V 50 Hz

Palmyra Atoll 120 V 60 Hz

Panama 110 V* 60 Hz

Papua New Guinea 240 V 50 Hz

Paraguay 220 V 50 Hz

Peru 220 V* 60 Hz*

Philippines 220 V 60 Hz

Poland 230 V 50 Hz

Portugal 230 V 50 Hz

Puerto Rico 120 V 60 Hz

Qatar 240 V 50 Hz

Réunion Island 220 V 50 Hz

Romania 230 V 50 Hz

Russia 220 V 50 Hz

Rwanda 230 V 50 Hz

St. Kitts and Nevis (Leeward Is.) 230 V 60 Hz

St. Lucia (Windward Is.) 240 V 50 Hz

St. Vincent (Windward Is.) 230 V 50 Hz

Samoa 230 V 50 Hz

Saudi Arabia 127/220 V 60 Hz

Scotland (See United Kingdom) Senegal 230 V 50 Hz

Serbia 220 V 50 Hz

Seychelles 240 V 50 Hz

Sierra Leone 230 V 50 Hz

Singapore 230 V 50 Hz

Slovak Republic 230 V 50 Hz

Slovenia 220 V 50 Hz

Somalia 220 V* 50 Hz

South Africa 220/230 V* 50 Hz

Spain 230 V 50 Hz

Sri Lanka 230 V 50 Hz

Sudan 230 V 50 Hz

Suriname 127 V 60 Hz

Swaziland 230 V 50 Hz

Sweden 230 V 50 Hz

Switzerland 230 V 50 Hz

Syria 220 V 50 Hz

Tahiti 110/220 V 60 Hz

Tajikistan 220 V 50 Hz

Taiwan 110 V 60 Hz

Tanzania 230 V 50 Hz

Thailand 220 V 50 Hz

Togo 220 V* 50 Hz

Tonga 240 V 50 Hz

Trinidad & Tobago 115V 60 Hz

Tunisia 230 V 50 Hz

Turkey 230 V 50 Hz

Turkmenistan 220 V 50 Hz

Uganda 240 V 50 Hz

Ukraine 220 V 50 Hz

United Arab Emirates 220 V* 50 Hz

United Kingdom 230 V* 50 Hz

United States of America 120 V 60 Hz

Uruguay 220 V 50 Hz

Uzbekistan 220 V 50 Hz

Vanuatu 230 V 50 Hz

Venezuela 120 V 60 Hz

Vietnam 127/220 V* 50 Hz

Virgin Islands (British and U.S.) 115V 60 Hz

Wales (See United Kingdom) Yemen, Rep. of 220/230 V 50 Hz

Zambia 230 V 50 Hz

Zimbabwe 220 V 50 Hz 


Primary sources: Electric Current Abroad (1998 edition), U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service; World Electricity Supplies and Electrical Plugs; an International Survey, (both 1993), British Standards Institute. Additionally, since this table was first posted in late 1995, numerous revisions have (and continue to be) made as a result of personal observations or reports from other travelers.


Farenheit to Celcius Conversion Table


 Deg F   Deg C

 -    (18)

 1   (17)

 2   (17)

 3   (16)

 4   (16)

 5   (15)

 6   (14)

 7   (14)

 8   (13)

 9   (13)

 10   (12)

 11   (12)

 12   (11)

 13   (11)

 14   (10)

 15   (9)

 16   (9)

 17   (8)

 18   (8)

 19   (7)

 20   (7)

 21   (6)

 22   (6)

 23   (5)

 24   (4)

 25   (4)

 26   (3)

 27   (3)

 28   (2)

 29   (2)

 30   (1)

 31   (1)

 32   -  

 33   1

 34   1

 35   2

 36   2

 37   3

 38   3

 39   4

 40   4

 41   5

 42   6

 43   6

 44   7

 45   7

 46   8

 47   8

 48   9

 49   9

 50   10

 51   11

 52   11

 53   12

 54   12

 55   13

 56   13

 57   14

 58   14

 59   15

 60   16

 61   16

 62   17

 63   17

 64   18

 65   18

 66   19

 67   19

 68   20

 69   21

 70   21

 71   22

 72   22

 73   23

 74   23

 75   24

 76   24

 77   25

 78   26

 79   26

 80   27

 81   27

 82   28

 83   28

 84   29

 85   29

 86   30

 87   31

 88   31

 89   32

 90   32

 91   33

 92   33

 93   34

 94   34

 95   35

 96   36

 97   36

 98   37

 99   37

 100   38

 101   38

 102   39


Gas Pressure Conversion Data for Natural Gas Generators


WC"  Ounces

1  0.4912

2  0.98

3  1.47

4  1.96

5  2.46

6  2.95

7  3.44

8  3.93

9  4.42

10  4.91

11  5.40

12  5.89

13  6.39

14  6.88

15  7.37

16  7.86

17  8.35

18  8.84

19  9.33

20  9.82

21  10.32

22  10.81

23  11.30

24  11.79

25  12.28

26  12.77

27  13.26

28  13.75

29  14.24

30  14.74

31  15.23

32  15.72


General Motors Natural Gas Generator Specifications


NATURAL GAS OR PROPANE GENERATOR SETS

 

GENSET 60 Hz 50 Hz

MODEL 1800 rpm         1500 rpm     

3 phase – 0.8 pf    3 phase – 0.8 pf

  

 STANDBY PRIME STANDBY PRIME DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT*

 kW (kVA) kW (kVA) kW (kVA) kW (kVA) L [in] W [in] H [in] Dry Wt [lb]

  

GM30Si 30 (38) 27 (34) 23 (29) 20 (25) VORTEC 3.0L 78 37 54 1508

  

GM35Si 38 (48) 35 (44) 31 (39) 29 (36) VORTEC 4.3L 78 37 54 1728

  

GM45Si 40 (50) 36 (45) 33 (41) 30 (38) VORTEC 4.3L 78 37 54 1728

  

GM60Si 60 (75) 55 (69) 49 (61) 45 (56) VORTEC 5.7L 90 37 65 2311

  

GM80Si 80 (73) 73 (91) 66 (83) 60 (75) VORTEC 5.7L 90 37 65 2439

  

GM100Si 90 (113) 81 (101) 76 (95) 69 (86) VORTEC 8.1L 90 37 65 2564

  

GM125Si 125 (156) 115 (144) 104 (130) 96 (120) VORTEC 8.1LT 94 37 65 2691


A WIDE RANGE OF POWER SETS

Powered by one of the worlds leading manufacturers of natural gas & propane engines. Our GM generator line is full of standard features and ready to deliver the power you need.

STANDARD FEATURES

Rugged and reliable 4-cycle water-cooled GM (General Motors) vapor fuel engine.

Brushless, class H, drip-proof.

Industrial silencer, protective rain cap, elbow pipe, installation clamps.

Complete control panel with AC meters, engine gauges, battery charge voltmeter, phase selector switch, hour meter and start key switch.

Heavy-duty skid-type steel base frame.

Cooling radiator designed for tropical temperatures.

Quality acrylic enamel protective paint.

Battery, cables, rack, installation hardware.

Limited warranty on all components.

Protective steel guards to isolate moving parts.

Rubber mounting isolators between unit and frame.

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

Weather and acoustic enclosures.

Residential and critical silencers.

Auto-start module.

Electronic speed governor.

Battery trickle charger.

Many other options available


GLOSSARY OF USED DIESEL GENERATOR TERMS


Terminology and Concepts For Electric Generators


The following list of terms and word-pictures is offered to help our clients understand the relevant terms and concepts when purchasing, maintaining and selling electric generators. While we believe that many of the following terms need only be defined for our purposes today, comparing electrical terminology to water flowing in a pipe, while not perfect, presents a good analogy of electricity. This glossary is intended for Everyman and not overly technical.


AC versus DC


A battery is direct current (DC). The polarity of a battery is always the same--positive on one side and negative on the other. In an AC system, the polarity is constantly changing every 1/60th of a second (60 times per second, or 60 Hz). The frequency of AC electronics in the US is 60 cycles per second or hertz (HZ).


Alternator


A device for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.


Amperage


The strength or intensity of an electric current, measured in amperes (AMPS).


Apparent Power, Real Power, and Power Factor


Power is the measure of a system that can perform work. Water performs work when it turns the blades of a hydroelectric plant. Electricity performs work when it heats up a heating element or turns a motor. It takes power to store energy, like in capacitive or inductive devices, while these devices then release some energy, or power, at a later time. (These devices can both expend power and deliver power.)


Apparent Power (KVA)


Many generators (and most transformers) are rated in volt-amperes (VA), or thousand-volt-amperes (KVA). A 25 KVA generator (or transformer) can deliver no more than 70 amps per phase @ 208 volts before it burns out the windings. This can therefore power 25 kilowatts of heaters, but only 20 kilowatts for motors (assuming 80% power factor), because both of these loads will use 70 amps. Since the manufacturer does not know what the generator will ultimately be used for, they rate it in KVA because this indicates the maximum current regardless of the load's power factor.


Battery Charger


A battery charger converts household electricity to direct current needed to recharge a battery. Direct current has polarity. The amount of electricity the charger puts into the battery is measured in amperes and is shown on the ammeter built into most chargers. The charging begins on a dead battery with a large amount of current going into the battery so the chargers ammeter registers towards the high end of the scale and declines towards the zero end of the meter as the battery becomes more fully charged.


Battery Charge Rectifier


A component that changes AC voltage from the battery charge windings (within the STATOR) to DC voltage. This voltage could b used to charge a battery.


Brush


A conducting element, usually graphite and/or copper, which maintains sliding electrical contact between a stationary and a moving element.


Calculations


The primary equation for calculating electrical power from mechanical horsepower is: HP=W/745. Where HP is horsepower, W is watts, and 745 is a conversion factor. We know from our previous discussion that power, in volt-amperes, is given by the following equation: P=I*V. For an inductive device like a motor, we also need to take into account the power factor (pf). Our equation for power becomes P=I*V*pf. The final equation then becomes: HP=I*V*pf/745.


Capacitor Run Electric Motor


Also referred to as air compressor motors these are very similar to capacitor start motors with one additional feature. These motors will also use a capacitor while the motor is running. These are most commonly found on applications such as air compressors where extra torque is necessary.

Capacitor Start Electric Motor

These motors will have one or more capacitors mounted to the motor that store electricity until it is turned on. The capacitor gives the motor an extra boost of electricity to reduce the starting current draw and increase starting torque.


Circuit Protection and Circuit Breakers


The purpose of the circuit breaker is to protect the wires between the breaker and the load, although it can also serve as a service disconnect (a means of disconnecting power from the circuit).

Conductor

A wire or cable designed for the passage of electrical current.


Contactor


A contactor is an electrically operated switch usually used in control circuits and whose contacts are considered high amperage compared to a relay.


Commutator


This is found in universal and DC motors. These devices, along with the brushes serve to switch the polarity of the windings as the motor makes a revolution. (A forward and reversing switch, in short)


Core


The laminations in the generator forming the magnetic structure.


Cradle


The metal frame that surrounds and protects the generator/engine.


Current


In short, current is the flow rate of electricity. It is interesting, though, how the term “current” is used both with respect to water and electricity. However, whereas water current is measured in units per minute passing through a damn or under a bridge or through a waterslide, electrical current is recorded by measuring the electrons per second are passing through a wire.


The flow of water through a pipe, or electrical current through a wire, is directly related to the pressure or voltage difference across the pipe or wire. Going back to the example of our two bath tubs: If you were to fill one tub with a couple of inches of water, the flow of water wouldn't be very fast filling the empty tub. If you then filled the second tub with several feet of water, the speed at which the water flowed out of the drain into the sewer would be much greater. The same is true with electricity--the greater the difference in voltage from one end of the wire to the other, the higher the current.


Cycle


One complete reversal of alternating current of voltage, from zero to a positive maximum to zero to a negative maximum back to zero. The number of cycles per second is the frequency, expressed in Hertz (HZ).


Deep Cycle Battery Charger


A deep cycle battery supplies a relatively low amount of current for a long period of time. Deep cycle batteries, unlike car starting batteries, can be run down and recharged repeatedly with minimum loss of capacity.


Deposit


Filler metal added during a welding operation.


Diode


A solid state device which allows current to pass in one direction only. Since it allows only one half cycle of an alternating current pass, its output will be unidirectional and it may be considered a rectifying element.


Direct Current (DC)


An electric current flows in one direction only. DC is produced by chemical action (i.e. a storage battery) or by electromagnetic induction.


Dynamo


A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction - a generator.


Efficiency


Regardless of the type of system, Efficiency is the difference between power in and power out. If you are peddling a bike, your legs are Power in, and the tire against the road is Power out. The difference between these two is the efficiency of power transmission.


For a bike, this loss of power, or efficiency, would be primarily the friction of the chain (even the friction of your shorts against your legs), wind resistance in the spokes, and even small frictional losses between the tire and the pavement, but it is not due to the steepness of the hill or wind resistance against you and the bike's frame, as this is a portion of the work the bike is performing (the load).

In a motor, the loss of power is due to the resistance of the windings, friction in the bearings, & air resistance inside the motor.


Electricity Types in Commercial Applications


There are three common terms used to describe the electricity used in commercial applications. Single-phase 120 volt, Single-phase 240 volt, and three-phase voltage (120/208, 120/240, or 277/480).

Don't be confused if you hear the terms 110 volts instead of 120 volts, or 220 volts instead of 240 volts. These are out of date terms people still refer to, but all public utilities in the US deliver 120 volts and 240 volts for consistency and load sharing. Most tools and motors use these other terms (110/220) just to indicate that they will still perform if the voltage drops to that level.


Electromagnets


Any flowing electric current creates a magnetic field. When this current is flowing through a wire, the magnetic field forms circular rings around the wire. We can concentrate the magnetic field by coiling the wire into tight loops, thereby making an electromagnet.

We can concentrate the magnetic field even more, by wrapping the wire around an iron bar. This electromagnet also has both north and south poles like any other magnet, but the polarity of the poles changes as the electricity changes. If we send 60hz line power through an electromagnet, the polarity of the magnetic poles will alternate sixty times per second.


Electro-Motive Force (EMF)


The force causing current to flow in a conductor.


Engine Low Oil Shutdown


Will automatically shut engine down if oil level is insufficient for safe operation.


Engine Mechanical Governor


Throttles engine up to maintain RPM under load.


Four-Cycle or Four-Stroke Engine


Engine is lubricated by oil in the crankcase. Gas and oil are not mixed for fuel.


Friction Loss


The loss of pressure due to the resistance to flow in the pipe and fittings. Friction loss is influenced by pipe size and fluid velocity and is usually expressed in feet of head.


Full Pressure Lubrication Engine


Engine is lubricated by means of an oil pump located in the crankcase.


Full Power Outlet


Enables you to draw the full power of the generator out of one outlet.


Fully Automatic Battery Charger


The charger turns off automatically when the battery is fully charged. As the battery loses power the charger automatically turns back on.


Generator


A general name for a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The electrical energy may be direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC).


Ground


A connection, intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit and the earth or some conduction body serving in the place of the earth. For example, the ground wire in your business or home is attached to an eight foot copper wire driven into the Earth an intended to keep your electrical devices and appliances from carrying current to you should they malfunction.


Idle Control


A system that controls the idle speed of the engine in direct relation to the electrical load.


Ignition Coil


A device used to supply DC voltage to the spark plugs.


Induction


If you have a magnet, and you are physically moving a wire near this magnet, it will create a current in the moving wire. The faster the wire is moved, the larger the current. Typically, the larger the magnet, the larger the current. If you change the direction the wire moves, the current will also change direction. This is the basic premise for a simple generator, where we use a diesel engine turn an armature moving wires past a magnetic field.


Inductors


An inductive device is any coil of wire, which includes motors, transformers, and generators. Every time electricity flows through a wire, it creates a small magnetic field around the wire. (This is the same type of magnetism that holds a refrigerator magnet to the refrigerator, except that it is only present when current is flowing.) This magnetic field forms circular lines of flux around the wire. When we coil up a wire, we not only concentrate the wire itself into a small area, but we also concentrate the wire's magnetism into a small area too. An inductor stores energy in the magnetic field around the coils. It takes energy to develop the magnetic field around the coils, and the magnetic field gives off energy as it collapses (it collapses when the current is stopped or reversed.)


In an AC circuit, remember that the voltage is changing from positive, through zero, to negative 60 times every second. When we connect an inductor, like a motor or transformer, to an AC circuit, the magnetic field around the wires are also constantly changing as a result. They are continually expanding and contracting as the current is reversing.


Magnetic Poles


All magnets, regardless of type or origin, will have a north and south pole. This is very similar to a battery always having a positive and negative terminal. If you have two magnets, the poles with opposite polarity will attract one another, while poles with the same polarity repel one another. These attraction and repulsion forces can be quite strong, and this is what will make a moto


https://www.machinerymanager.com/splash


An alternator with permanent magnets used to generate current for ignition in an internal combustion engine.


Neutral and Hot


The only difference between the Neutral wire and hot wire(s) of a modern electrical system is that the Neutral wire is forced to be at zero volts (anchored) by connecting it to Ground back at the circuit breaker panel.

If we did not anchor Neutral to Ground, then both the Neutral wire and the hot wire would be at some intermediate voltage (both would be free-floating). This is done as a safety issue. It is much easier to work on a system when we only have one wire with a non-zero voltage. Unlike the Ground wire however, the Neutral wire is designed to carry current during normal operation.


Ohms' Law


An Ohm is a unit of electrical resistance. One volt will cause a current of one flow through a resistance of one ohm.


In electrical systems, there is a relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. This is known as ohms law, and can be written in many different forms, but always boils down to V=IR, where V is voltage, I is current, and R is resistance.


This equation holds true whether we are dealing with AC, DC, Capacitive, Inductive, Three Phase, or any other type of circuit. However, it should be noted that sometimes the values for current and/or voltage are no longer simple values. The V and I of Ohms' Law can be replaced by complex mathematical expressions, but they still represent the current and voltage.


Ohm's law can be written in different forms, but are still the same equation. The three common forms of Ohms law are:


V=I *R

I=V/R

R=V/I


Parts of the Alternator


A motor is made up of electric and/or permanent magnets that are constantly attracting and/or repelling one another. This creates movement of the spinning rotor. The only thing that differs from one type of motor to another is how these magnets are created and controlled.


Phase


The uniform periodic change in amplitude or magnitude of an alternating current. Three phase alternating current consists of three different sine wave current consists of three different sine wave current flows, different in phase by 120 degrees from each other.


Power (in General)


For DC systems, power is the product of Current times Voltage, and will take on the form P=I*V. For AC systems with only resistive loads, the same holds true. But in capacitive or inductive circuits on an AC system, the device will momentarily store some power (or delay it), and so the issue becomes slightly more complicated. We need to compensate for this delay in power transmission, and this is where the term Power factor comes in.


Power Factor


When we us any capacitive or inductive device on an AC circuit, the current or voltage flowing through the circuit will be slightly delayed, or out of phase. A motor is an inductive element, and the current lags behind the voltage (remember, the inductor had the ability to store current). In a capacitor the voltage lags behind the current (the capacitor stores voltage). Due to the resistance inside the motor windings, a common power factor for electric motors is 0.8.


Power Transfer System


A system to safely wire your generator to your facility’s or home's electrical system, typically via an Automatic Transfer Switch.


Pressure and Voltage


The pressure in a pipe can be compared to electrical voltage across a wire. If the pressure on both ends of a pipe is the same, then no water will flow. If you took two water tanks of the same size, where one was full and the other was empty, and connected them together with a hose at their bottoms, water would flow from the full tank into the empty tank. The water would stop flowing when the depth of the water in each tank was the same.


The full tank has a higher pressure at the bottom (where the hose is connected) than the empty tank. When the depth of the water is equal in each tank, then the pressure at the bottom of both tanks is equal. If both ends of a wire are connected to the same voltage (for example, the positive terminal of a battery) then no current will flow either. In either case, it is the difference in pressure or voltage that causes the water or electricity to flow.


Rated Speed


The revolutions per minute at which the set is designed to operate.


Rated Voltage


The rated voltage of an engine generator set is the voltage at which it is designed to operate.


Real Power (Watts)


The real amount of power a device is using, or results in actual work performed, is called the "real power". Real power takes into account the fact that current or voltage is stored, or delayed. The real power tells us how much actual work can be performed, or how many horsepower our motor is delivering.


For a resistive and/or DC circuit, the apparent power and the real power are the same, but for a capacitive or inductive circuit, the real power is heavily dependent on the amount that the current or voltage is delayed. Real power is presented in Watts.


There is mathematically no difference between watts and volt-amperes, except that we use one term for apparent power, and one for real power, but they are both units of power. We use the power factor to go from apparent power to real power. The real power of a system is equal to the apparent power times the power factor. In every day use, this boils down to P=I*V*pf.


Rear Bearing Carrier


The casting housing the rotor bearing supporting the rotor shaft.


Rectifier


A device that converts AC to DC.


Relay


An electrically operated switch usually used in control circuits and whose contacts are considered low amperage, compared to a contactor.


Resistance


Opposition to the flow of current. Changed by things like the size of the wire and the length of the wire, similar to water and a hose.


Rotor


The rotating element of a generator.


Single Phase 120/240


Single phase 120 volt and 240 volt lines, are just different parts of the same system. This is actually a 240-volt system, but we split it in half to get two, 120-volt systems. This is the reason why it is called a single-phase system.


It is just one phase of power at 240 volts. To get the 120 volts, we use what is called a center-tap. Standard outlets use the Neutral wire (the center tap) and one hot wire, where the voltage between the Neutral and Hot is 120 volts. The 240 outlets use both hot wires, where one wire is 120 volts above the Neutral and the other is 120 volts below the Neutral (as before, we anchor the Neutral to Ground, and let the two Hot lines "float" above and below). It is said that each of the Hot legs (called poles) of a single-phase system are 180° out of phase. It can be confusing that this system is called single phase, but it might be helpful to refer to this as a two pole system. (Using the term two pole is correct, but calling it a two-phase system is incorrect.)


Stator


This is the stationary magnetic component in motors. On most motors, the stator's magnetic field is created from electromagnets, long coils of copper wires wound around this sheets of metal.


Rotor


The rotor is the component that makes up the spinning shaft of the motor. It is almost always electromagnetic in nature (coils).


Single Phase


An AC load, or source of power normally having only two input terminals if a load or two output terminals if a source.


Tack Weld


A weld made to hold parts together in proper alignment until the final welds are made.


Tandem Trailer Axle


Refers to a trailer that has two axles instead of one allowing the trailer to carry additional weight.


Tank


A container for the storage of fluid in a fluid power system.


Three Phase Systems


Where the single-phase system has two poles 180° out of phase, the three phase system has three poles which are 120° out of phase (note 3*120° = 360° = full circle). Just as before, the voltage between the Hot and Neutral is 120 volts, but because of the phase angle, the voltage between any two Hot wires is 208 volts, which is 40*(0.866) = 208 volts. (Where 0.866 is the cosine of 120°.)


The majority of three phase motors don't use the Neutral wire. This is called a Delta Connected system. When the Neutral is used, it is called a wye-connected system. The majority of power sources are "wye- connected". A delta-connected load (motor) can always be connected to a wye source by just ignoring the Neutral wire, but the reverse is virtually never true. (It can be done, but it requires a center tap, three-phase, transformer to artificially create the Neutral.)


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Vibration Mount


A rubber device located between the engine or generator and the cradle to minimize vibration.


Volt


The unit of electromotive force. That electromotive force which when steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm will produce a current of one ampere.


Voltage


Electrical potential difference expressed in volts.


Voltage Regulator


A component that automatically maintains proper generator voltage by controlling the amount of DC excitation to the rotor.


Watt


Unit of electrical power. In DC terms, equal volts times amperes. In AC equals effective volts times effective amps times power factor times a consistent dependent on the number of phases. 1 kilowatt - 1,000 watts.


Winding


All the coils of a generator that make up the electromagnet that are wrapped around a laminated stack of iron sheets. Stator winding consists of a number stator coils and their interconnections. Rotor windings consist of all windings and connections on the rotor poles.


HELPFUL INCH POUND TO FOOT POUND CONVERSION TABLE


Inch Pound  Foot Pound


1   0.083

2   0.167

3   0.250

4   0.333

5   0.417

6   0.500

7   0.583

8   0.667

9   0.750

10   0.833

11   0.917

12   1.000

13   1.083

14   1.167

15   1.250

16   1.333

17   1.417

18   1.500

19   1.583

20   1.667

21   1.750

22   1.833

23   1.917

24   2.000

25   2.083

26   2.167

27   2.250

28   2.333

29   2.417

30   2.500

31   2.583

32   2.667

33   2.750

34   2.833

35   2.917

36   3.000

37   3.083

38   3.167

39   3.250

40   3.333

41   3.417

42   3.500

43   3.583

44   3.667

45   3.750

46   3.833

47   3.917

48   4.000

49   4.083

50   4.167

51   4.250

52   4.333

53   4.417

54   4.500

55   4.583

56   4.667

57   4.750

58   4.833

59   4.917

60   5.000

61   5.083

62   5.167

63   5.250

64   5.333

65   5.417

66   5.500

67   5.583

68   5.667

69   5.750

70   5.833

71   5.917

72   6.000

73   6.083

74   6.167

75   6.250

76   6.333

77   6.417

78   6.500

79   6.583

80   6.667

81   6.750

82   6.833

83   6.917

84   7.000

85   7.083

86   7.167

87   7.250

88   7.333

89   7.417

90   7.500

91   7.583

92   7.667

93   7.750

94   7.833

95   7.917

96   8.000

97   8.083

98   8.167

99   8.250

100   8.333


JOHN DEERE DIESEL GENERATORS



Leading Generator Manufacturers


Baldor Generators - Superior Product in several ratings, great warranties, good pricing and availability. 


Caterpillar is one of the largest industrial equipment and generator manufacturing companies on the planet.


Cummins Generators is a leading manufacturer of diesel engines, diesel generators and natural gas generators.


Detroit Diesel is a manufacturer of heavy-duty diesel engines for commercial trucks and diesel generators.


Generac produces industrial, commercial, and residential power generator sets, as well as automatic transfer switches, fuel tanks, and enclosures.


ASCO is our prefered vendor for open transition Automatic Transfer Switches and Switchgear.


Alpha Power is the US Power & Environment preferred vendor for Soft Load switch gear for our casino and military abd other customers needing paralelling switchgear, etc.


More Helpful Formulas for Power Engineering Calculations


M = Make-up water in gal/min

C = Circulating water in gal/min

D = Draw-off water in gal/min

E = Evaporated water in gal/min

W = Windage loss of water in gal/min

X = Concentration in ppmw (of any completely soluble salts … usually chlorides)

XM = Concentration of chlorides in make-up water (M), in ppmw

XC = Concentration of chlorides in circulating water (C), in ppmw

Cycles = Cycles of concentration = XC / XM

ppmw = parts per million by weight


A water balance around the entire system is:


M = E + D + W


Since the evaporated water (E) has no salts, a chloride balance around the system is:


M (XM) = D (XC) + W (XC) = XC (D + W)


and, therefore:


XC / XM = Cycles = M / (D + W) = M / (M – E) = 1 + {E / (D + W)}


From a simplified heat balance around the cooling tower:


(E) = (C) (Δ T) (cp) / HV


where:

HV = latent heat of vaporization of water = ca. 1,000 Btu/pound

Δ T = temperature difference from tower top to tower bottom, in °F

cp = specific heat of water = 1 Btu/pound/°F


Windage losses (W), in the absence of manufacturer's data, may be assumed to be:  

  

W = 0.3 to 1.0 percent of C for a natural draft cooling tower  

W = 0.1 to 0.3 percent of C for an induced draft cooling tower  

W = about 0.01 percent of C if the cooling tower has windage drift eliminators  

  

Concentration cycles in petroleum refinery cooling towers usually range from 3 to 7. In some large power plants, the cooling tower concentration cycles may be much higher.  

  

(Note: Draw-off and blowdown are synonymous. Windage and drift are also synonymous.)  

  

From a simplified heat balance around an evaporative cooling tower:  

  

(E)(H) = (C)(DT)(cp)  

  

where:  

E = evaporation rate  E

H = heat of vaporization of water = ca. 1,000 BTU/pound  H          

C = circulating water rate  C          

DT = water temperature drop from top to bottom of tower = delta T  DT          

cp = specific heat of water = 1 BTU/pound/degree F  cp          

            

E and C may be in gallons/minute, m3/hour, pounds/hour, etc. as long as they are both in the same units.            

            

If you want more explanation, read pages 144-147 of "Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants" by M.R. Beychok, published by John Wiley and Sons, 1967.            

            

Don't forget that, in addition to the evaporation loss, there is also a small amount of windage loss.            


Where: E = Rate of evaporation GPM (if not accurately known, evaporation can be approximated by multiplying total water flow rate in GPM times the cooling range (F) times 0.0008). (Formula 3)  2400  10  0.0008  19.2  60  72

            

Evaporation Loss: from a cooling tower (E) = .001 (Cr) (DT) where Cr = circulation rate in gallons per minute and D T = temperature differential between hot and cold water in °F. The evaporation rate amounts to 1% of the recirculation rate for every 10°F DT.  0.001  2400  10  24  60  72

          Average  


Cast in place cold water basin  7.48  gallons per cubic foot        

Cubic feet of cold water basin   12,475           

Depth of basin  8          

Surface area of basin   1,559           

Redundant basin   2           

Net Surface Area   780           

Square root= A x B   28           

            

   12,475           

   93,312           


Circumference of a circle  3.1416 x d          

Volume of a cylinder  3.1416 x radius(sq) x height      3.1416 x diameter x height    

Volume of a cone  (1/3 x radius(sq) x 3.1416) x height


Lake evaporation rate is approximately 70% of NOAA Class A pan evaporation rate see My Pictures\panevap  


In mathematics, an "oval" is more correctly called an ellipse, and the   

area of an ellipse is given by Pi*a*b, where 2*a is the length of the   

longer side (measured at its greatest width) and 2*b is the length of   

the shortest side (measured at its greatest height).   


OHMs Law for Calculating Voltage and Amperage


V=I x R

V=Voltage

I=Current

R=Resistance (ohms)


I = V / R


Perkins Diesel Engine Specifications



POWER (kW to kVA) CONVERSION TABLE

 PF  0.8  


   kW   kVa      kW     kVa     

 30   38     1,175   1,469

 40   50     1,200   1,500

 50   63     1,225   1,531

 60   75     1,250   1,563

 70   88     1,275   1,594

 80   100     1,300   1,625

 90   113     1,325   1,656

 100   125     1,350   1,688

 110   138     1,375   1,719

 125   156     1,400   1,750

 135   169     1,425   1,781

 150   188     1,450   1,813

 165   206     1,475   1,844

 175   219     1,500   1,875

 200   250     1,525   1,906

 225   281     1,550   1,938

 250   313     1,575   1,969

 275   344     1,600   2,000

 300   375     1,625   2,031

 325   406     1,650   2,063

 350   438     1,675   2,094

 375   469     1,700   2,125

 400   500     1,725   2,156

 425   531     1,750   2,188

 450   563     1,775   2,219

 475   594     1,800   2,250

 500   625     1,825   2,281

 525   656     1,850   2,313

 550   688     1,875   2,344

 575   719     1,900   2,375

 600   750     1,925   2,406

 625   781     1,950   2,438

 650   813     1,975   2,469

 675   844     2,000   2,500

 700   875     2,025   2,531

 725   906     2,050   2,563

 750   938     2,075   2,594

 775   969     2,100   2,625

 800   1,000     2,125   2,656

 825   1,031     2,150   2,688

 850   1,063     2,175   2,719

 875   1,094     2,200   2,750

 900   1,125     2,225   2,781

 925   1,156     2,250   2,813

 950   1,188     2,275   2,844

 975   1,219     2,300   2,875

 1,000   1,250     2,325   2,906

 1,025   1,281     2,350   2,938

 1,050   1,313     2,375   2,969

 1,075   1,344     2,400   3,000

 1,100   1,375     2,425   3,031

 1,125   1,406     2,450   3,063

 1,150   1,438     2,475   3,094


Power Consumption Chart


The following ratings are approximate.



Power Consumption Calculations Using Standard Electrical Formulas


TO DETERMINE: SINGLE-PHASE THREE-PHASE DIRECT CURRENT

KVA I x E

1000 I x E x 1.73

1000 --------

Kilowatts I x E x PF

1000 I x E x 1.73 x PF

1000 I x E

1000

Horsepower I x E x %EFF x PF

746 I x E x 1.732 x %EFF x PF

746 I x E x %EFF

746

Amperes (when HP is known)  HP x 746   

E x %EFF x PF     HP x 746     

1.73 x E x %EFF x PF HP x 746

E x %EFF

Amperes (when kW is known) KW x 1000

E x PF KW x 1000

1.73 x E x PF KW x 1000

E

Amperes (when KVA is known) KVA x 1000

E KVA x 1000

1.73 x E --------


Voltage & Frequency (Hz) by Country Worldwide


Country Voltage Frequency Country Voltage Frequency

Afghanistan 220V 50Hz Kiribati 240V 50Hz

Albania 230V 50Hz Korea, South 220V 60Hz

Algeria 230V 50Hz Kuwait 240V 50Hz

American Samoa 120V 60Hz Kyrgyzstan 220V 50Hz

Andorra 230V 50Hz Laos 230V 50Hz

Angola 220V 50Hz Latvia 230V 50Hz

Anguilla 110V 60Hz Lebanon 230V 50Hz

Antigua 230V 60Hz Lesotho 220V 50Hz

Argentina 220V 50Hz Liberia 120V 60Hz

Armenia 230V 50Hz Libya 127/230V 50Hz

Aruba 127V 60Hz Lithuania 230V 50Hz

Australia 240V 50Hz Liechtenstein 230V 50Hz

Austria 230V 50Hz Luxembourg 230V 50Hz

Azerbaijan 220V 50Hz Macau 220V 50Hz

Azores 230V 50Hz Macedonia 230V 50Hz

Bahamas 120V 60Hz Madagascar 127/220V 50Hz

Bahrain 230V 50Hz Madeira 230V 50Hz

Balearic Islands 230V 50Hz Malawi 230V 50Hz

Bangladesh 220V 50Hz Malaysia 240V 50Hz

Barbados 115V 50Hz Maldives 230V 50Hz

Belarus 230V 50Hz Mali 220V 50Hz

Belgium 230V 50Hz Malta 230V 50Hz

Belize 110/220V 60Hz Martinique 220V 50Hz

Benin 220V 50Hz Mauritania 220V 50Hz

Bermuda 120V 60Hz Mauritius 230V 50Hz

Bhutan 230V 50Hz Mexico 127V 60Hz

Bolivia 230V 50Hz Micronesia 120V 60Hz

Bosnia 230V 50Hz Moldova 230V 50Hz

Botswana 230V 50Hz Monaco 230V 50Hz

Brazil 110-220V 60Hz Mongolia 230V 50Hz

Brunei 240V 50Hz Montserrat Islands 230V 60Hz

Bulgaria 230V 50Hz Morocco 220V 50Hz

Burkina Faso 220V 50Hz Mozambique 220V 50Hz

Burundi 220V 50Hz Myanmar (Burma) 230V 50Hz

Cambodia 230V 50Hz Namibia 220V 50Hz

Cameroon 220V 50Hz Nauru 240V 50Hz

Canada 120V 60Hz Nepal 230V 50Hz

Canary Islands 230V 50Hz Netherlands 230V 50Hz

Cape Verde 230V 50Hz Netherlands Antilles 127/220V 50Hz

Cayman Islands 120V 60Hz New Caledonia 220V 50Hz

Central Africa 220V 50Hz New Zealand 230V 50Hz

Chad 220V 50Hz Nicaragua 120V 60Hz

Channel Islands 230V 50Hz Niger 220V 50Hz

Chile 220V 50Hz Nigeria 240V 50Hz

China 220V 50Hz Norway 230V 50Hz

Colombia 110V 60Hz Okinawa 100V 60Hz

Comoros 220V 50Hz Oman 240V 50Hz

Congo (Zaire) 220V 50Hz Pakistan 230V 50Hz

Cook Islands 240V 50Hz Palmyra Atoll 120V 60Hz

Costa Rica 120V 60Hz Panama 110V 60Hz

Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 220V 50Hz Papua New Guinea 240V 50Hz

Paraguay 220V 50Hz

Croatia 230V 50Hz Peru 220V 60Hz

Cuba 110/220V 60Hz Philippines 220V 60Hz

Cyprus 230V 50Hz Poland 230V 50Hz

Czech Republic 230V 50Hz Portugal 230V 50Hz

Denmark 230V 50Hz Puerto Rico 120V 60Hz

Djibouti 220V 50Hz Qatar 240V 50Hz

Dominica 230V 50Hz Réunion Island 230V 50Hz

Dominican Republic 110V 60Hz Romania 230V 50Hz

East Timor 220V 50Hz Russian Federation 230V 50Hz

Ecuador 127V 60Hz Rwanda 230V 50Hz

Egypt 220V 50Hz St. Kitts & Nevis Islands 230V 60Hz

El Salvador 115V 60Hz St. Lucia Island 240V 50Hz

Equatorial Guinea 220V 50Hz St. Vincent Island 230V 50Hz

Eritrea 230V 50Hz Saudi Arabia 127/220V 60Hz

Estonia 230V 50Hz Senegal 230V 50Hz

Ethiopia 220V 50Hz Serbia & Montenegro 230V 50Hz

Faeroe Islands 230V 50Hz Seychelles 240V 50Hz

Falkland Islands 240V 50Hz Sierra Leone 230V 50Hz

Fiji 240V 50Hz Singapore 230V 50Hz

Finland 230V 50Hz Slovakia 230V 50Hz

France 230V 50Hz Slovenia 230V 50Hz

French Guyana 220V 50Hz Somalia 220V 50Hz

Gaza 230V 50Hz South Africa 230V 50Hz

Gabon 220V 50Hz Spain 230V 50Hz

Gambia 230V 50Hz Sri Lanka 230V 50Hz

Germany 230V 50Hz Sudan 230V 50Hz

Ghana 230V 50Hz Suriname 127V 60Hz

Gibraltar 230V 50Hz Swaziland 230V 50Hz

Greece 230V 50Hz Sweden 230V 50Hz

Greenland 230V 50Hz Switzerland 230V 50Hz

Grenada 230V 50Hz Syria 220V 50Hz

Guadeloupe 230V 50Hz Tahiti 110/220V 60Hz

Guam 110V 60Hz Tajikistan 220V 50Hz

Guatemala 120V 60Hz Taiwan 110V 60Hz

Guinea 220V 50Hz Tanzania 230V 50Hz

Guinea-Bissau 220V 50Hz Thailand 220V 50Hz

Guyana 240V 60Hz Togo 220V 50Hz

Haiti 110V 60Hz Tonga 240V 50Hz

Honduras 110V 60Hz Trinidad & Tobago 115V 60Hz

Hong Kong 220V 50Hz Tunisia 230V 50Hz

Hungary 230V 50Hz Turkey 230V 50Hz

Iceland 230V 50Hz Turkmenistan 220V 50Hz

India 240V 50Hz Uganda 240V 50Hz

Indonesia 230V 50Hz Ukraine 230V 50Hz

Iran 230V 50Hz United Arab Emirates 220V 50Hz

Iraq 230V 50Hz United Kingdom 230V 50Hz

Ireland (Eire) 230V 50Hz United States 120/240V 60Hz

Isle of Man 230V 50Hz Uruguay 220V 50Hz

Israel 230V 50Hz Uzbekistan 220V 50Hz

Italy 230V 50Hz Venezuela 120V 60Hz

Jamaica 110V 50Hz Vietnam 220V 50Hz

Japan 100V 50/60Hz Virgin Islands 110V 60Hz

Jordan 230V 50Hz Western Samoa 230V 50Hz

Kenya 240V 50Hz Yemen 230V 50Hz

Kazakhstan 220V 50Hz Zambia 230V 50Hz

Zimbabwe 220V 50Hz


VOLTAGES FOR DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES (HZ)


60 hz  50 hz

 110   100

 120   110

 220   183

 240   200

 277   230

 460   383

 480   400

 4,160   3,467

 7,200   6,000

 12,470   10,392

 13,200   11,000

 13,800   11,500

 25,000   20,833

 35,000   29,167


Waukesha Natural Gas Generators - Specifications and Power Ratings


WAUKESHA GENERATOR SETS -NATURAL GAS- 60 Hz. & 50 Hz


Please call USP&E Today for More information regarding our New and Used Waukesha Generators Sets!



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Giving Back to the Communities We Serve


Because of our commitment to corporate social responsibility, USP&E is a proud sponsor of charities serving Africa by helping build schools, care for children in need, prevent disease, and bring hope to war-torn regions. Please join us in supporting organizations like these - and help to truly make a difference in people's lives in Africa and around the world.




Compassion International (www.compassion.com) seeks to "chang[e] the world one child at a time" through its Child Survival, Child Sponsorship, and Leadership Development programs, with initiatives addressing AIDS and malaria, in addition to its primary focus on Growth Monitoring, Oral Rehydration Therapy, Breast-feeding, Immunization, Female Literacy, Food, and Family Planning.


Every Orphan's Hope (www.everyorphan.org) seeks to love, protect, and care for orphans affected and infected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Programs include AfricaTrek Missions, Camp Hope, Orphan Sponsorship, Orphan Homes, Orphan Sunday, and the Goodnews Wristband. USP&E staff have made trips to Africa to assist in the care of these orphans.


Feed My Starving Children (www.fmsc.org) is committed to feeding starving children hungry in body and spirit. Their simple focus on preparing meals designed especially for starving children in over 60 countries is saving lives every day. USP&E staff prepare meals for one million children or more each year.


Samaritan's Purse (www.samaritanspurse.org) seeks to "aid... the world's poor, sick, and suffering" via Relief and Development, Operation Christmas Child, World Medical Mission, Children's Heart Project, and the HIV/AIDS Prescription for Hope. "Since 1970, Samaritan's Purse has helped meet needs of people who are victims of war, poverty, natural disasters, disease, and famine..."


The "E" in USP&E


Official USP&E Environmental Policy


USP&E is 100% Committed to the Protection and Management of the Environment. USP&E is committed to conducting all its power plant installations, upgrades, and services activities in an environmentally friendly manner and upholding the corporate environmental objectives of our client's shareholders. USP&E further believes that environmental stewardship is an integral component of its business and that economic development and environmental sustainability remain mutually compatible.


To fulfill these commitments USP&E will:


comply with all applicable environmental legislation and codes as a minimum requirement;

implement and maintain an efficient and effective environmental management system necessary for pollution prevention; conserve resources (material and energy) through efficient utilization of resources, waste reduction, waste reuse or recycling; integrate environmental, social, cultural and economic considerations into all planning, designing and implementation activities and decision-making processes.

Identify, evaluate and manage existing and potential environmental aspects and impacts associated with the company's activities and operations; carry out ecologically sustainable development including progressive rehabilitation, (as far as economically feasible) of land surfaces disturbed through the activities and operations of the company; promote environmental awareness and understanding among the work colleagues in order to develop an informed and responsible environmental culture;

provide relevant training and support for all personnel to enable them fulfill their environmental responsibilities; conduct environmental audits and periodic management reviews to ensure continuous improvement and responsible industry practice; work in partnership with communities around the company's operation areas through proactive engagement and consultation in recognition of the values of their local knowledge and expertise; develop and implement innovative approaches to environmental management through scientific research and technology transfer. All employees and contractors are accountable to upholding the company's environmental policy and standards.


Terms and Conditions


Rental Terms and Conditions